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Mostrando las entradas de 2016

THE WARRIOR ELITE

“The other order is that of the knights. These, when there is occasion and any war occurs …, are all engaged in war. And those of them most distinguished by birth and resources, have the greatest number of vassals and dependents about them”.

(Caesar. Gallic War. 6.15)






The warrior class was a crucial element in Celtic culture and, along with the druids, formed the backbone of the social structure in Iron Age European society. Their military aptitude and ability to mobilize significant numbers of troops is evident from accounts of their struggles with the classical world, and confirmed by the profusion of weapons found in their burials. The warrior class also played a central political role as participation in tribal councils was reserved for those who bore arms (Kruta V. 2004:190).

However, what has hitherto remained unclear is exactly what proportion of Celtic society this warrior class represented. An analysis of burials sites in southeastern Europe allows us to throw some li…

40,000-year-old bracelet made by extinct human species found

In what is quite an amazing discovery, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered, and archeologists have been taken aback by the level of its sophistication.
The bracelet was discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in Siberia, close to Russia’s border with China and Mongolia. It was found next to the bones of extinct animals, such as the wooly mammoth, and other artifacts dating back 125,000 years.
The cave is named after the Denisovan people — a mysterious species of hominins from the Homo genus, who are genetically different from both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

The Denisovan cave in Siberia Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov, Vera Salnitskaya
We know that the Denisovans migrated out of Africa sometime after the first wave of Homo erectus, and well before us, Homo sapiens.
The Denisovans were unique in many ways, having branched away from other humanoid ancestor…

Why was a 9th century Viking woman buried with a ring that says ‘for Allah’ on it?

washingtonpost.com

In the modern-era, Scandinavian countries have become known for their sometimes awkward embrace of migrants from the Arab and Muslim world. But the history behind that relationship goes back far further than you might expect.
Consider the case of a ring discovered in a Viking grave in Birka, a historic trading center in what is now Sweden. The woman in the grave died in the 9th century and was discovered around a thousand years later by the famous Swedish archaeologist Hjalmar Stolpe, who spent years excavating the grave sites around Birka.
The ring is unique. Made of silver alloy, it contained a stone with an inscription written in the Kufic Arabic script widely used between the 8th and 10th centuries. "For/to Allah," the inscription read. It was the only known Viking Age ring with an Arabic inscription to be found in the entire of Scandinavia. Exactly how the woman got the ring wasn't clear – she was found wearing typical Scandinavian d…

Bronze Age burial near Stonehenge discovered by badger

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-wiltshire-35523757?utm_content=buffer6f8d8&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer


A Bronze Age cremation burial has been discovered near Stonehenge after being accidentally dug up by a badger. Objects found in a burial mound at Netheravon, Wiltshire, include a bronze saw, an archer's wrist guard, a copper chisel and cremated human remains.
Experts believe the burial may have been that of an archer or a person who made archery equipment.
The artefacts date back to 2,200-2,000BC, senior archaeologist Richard Osgood, of the MOD, said.
the burial mound, about five miles north of Stonehenge, lies on MOD land.
Mr Osgood, from the MOD's Defence Infrastructure Organisation, said it was "an exciting find".
"It was utterly unexpected. These are wonderful artefacts from the early Bronze Age, about 2,200-2,000 BC," he said


Excavation uncovers remains of high-status women at Stonehenge

http://nytlive.nytimes.com/womenintheworld/2016/02/04/excavation-uncovers-remains-of-high-status-women-at-stonehenge/



The cremated remains of 14 women have been discovered at Stonehenge, challenging prevailing perceptions about the prehistoric monument. A recent excavation of “Aubrey Hole 7”—one of 56 pits dug outside of the iconic circle of stones—uncovered the bodies of nine men and 14 women, who were buried between 3100 BCE and 2140 BCE. Long bone pins, believed to be hairpins, were also unearthed during the excavation.
Archaeologists believe that anyone buried at Stonehenge enjoyed elevated social status — as religious and political leaders, members of prominent families, possessors of special skills — and so the new discovery calls for a re-examination of the roles of women during the late neolithic period. “The archaeology now shows that as far as the burials go, women were as prominent there as men,” said archaeologist Mike Pitts, editor of British Archaeology and au…

Mystical Runic Inscription on Oseberg Viking Ship Reads: “Man Knows Little”

http://readicon.com/oseberg-ships-mystical-runic-inscription-reads-man-knows-little/


The Runic inscriptions found written on the Oseberg viking ship have caused many people to ponder about their meaning. The Runes can be read both ways, but one interpretation is “litet-vis maðr,” which translates into English as: “man knows little.” So what did the Vikings know that we do not? The Oseberg ship is a well-preserved Viking ship that was discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway. It was excavated by Norwegian archaeologist Haakon Shetelig and Swedish archaeologist Gabriel Gustafson in 1904-1905.
The ship is dated to having been build and used during the dawn of the Viking Age. Research has revealed that parts of the ship date from around 800 AD, but the ship itself is thought to be much older.  The ship was used in 834 AD as a burial ship for two wealthy women in a burial mound.
The Oseberg mound is the richest Viking burial …

How to destroy gods

MEDIEVALIST.NET













 In the year 1168 a Danish bishop destroyed three pagan gods. The story is told in Gesta Danorum, by Saxo Grammaticus, which has recently been entirely translated into English for the first time
Saxo Grammaticus was a Danish cleric and historian who around the year 1188 began writing the first full history of Denmark. Stretched over 16 books, the Gesta Danorum goes back to the time before Jesus Christ to relate the mythological beginnings of the Danes. It has long been popular reading for the tales and legends it gives relating to the pagan past of this region, as well as for covering the rise of important leaders such as Cnut the Great.
As it moves into the twelfth century, the focus of the work concentrates on the rule by various Danish kings, most notably Valdemar I, who was King from 1146 to 1182. While Denmark had long been a Christian country, some of its neighbours in the Baltic Sea region were still pagan, including the Wends, a people who inhabited …

The astounding Bronze Age microscopic gold work from around Stonehenge

Archaeologists have revealed the process utilized by highly-skilled craftsmen to create the magnificent gold artifacts that were found around Stonehenge.  According to Discovery News, the gold work involved such tiny components that optical experts believe they could only have been made by children or adults with extreme short-sightedness, and would have caused lasting damage to their eyesight.
In 1808, William Cunnington, one of Britain's earliest professional archaeologists, discovered what has become known as the crown jewels of the 'King of Stonehenge'. They were found within a large Bronze Age burial mound just ½ mile from Stonehenge, known today as Bush Barrow. Within the 4,000-year-old barrow, Cunnington found ornate jewellery, a gold lozenge that fastened his cloak, and an intricately decorated dagger.


“The very finest gold work involved the making and positioning of literally tens of thousands of tiny individually-made components, each around a mill…

DNA discovery unearths 'unknown chapter in human history' in Europe 15,000 years ago

Scientists studying the DNA of ancient Europeans found evidence of a 'major population upheaval' at the end of the last Ice Age


A major and unexplained population shift occurred in Europe around 15,000 years ago when local hunter-gatherers were almost completely replaced by a group from another area, scientists researching our ancestors' genetics have discovered.
The findings were made after the extensive study of DNA evidence obtained from the bones and teeth of ancient people who lived in Europe during from the Late Pleistocene to the early Holocene, a period of roughly 30,000 years.
While attempting to find more genetic data from this time period, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Germany made an unexpected discovery.


The Institute's Johannes Krause said: "We uncovered a completely unknown chapter of human history: a major population turnover at the end of the last Ice Age."
To try and piece together the fac…

Mysterious Viking Sword Made With Technology From the Future?

ANCIENT ORIGINS.NET
By Tara MacIsaac,


Epoch Times The Viking sword Ulfberht was made of metal so pure it baffled archaeologists. It was thought the technology to forge such metal was not invented for another 800 or more years, during the Industrial Revolution.

 About 170 Ulfberhts have been found, dating from 800 to 1,000 A.D. A NOVA, National Geographic documentary titled “Secrets of the Viking Sword”, first aired in 2012, took a look at the enigmatic sword’s metallurgic composition.

 In the process of forging iron, the ore must be heated to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit to liquify, allowing the blacksmith to remove the impurities (called “slag”). Carbon is also mixed in to make the brittle iron stronger. Medieval technology did not allow iron to be heated to such a high temperature, thus the slag was removed by pounding it out, a far less effective method.

The Ulfberht, however, has almost no slag, and it has a carbon content three times that of other metals from the time. It was made o…

Well preserved 5,500 year-old hafted flint axe found in Denmark

Following the recent discoveries of a flint knife with wooden hilt still intact and a series of footprints in the soft mud, an approx. 5,500-year-old flint axe has also emerged from the ground. Complete with its wooden haft, the axe, along with other well preserved artefacts, sheds light on ritual acts of the time. As part of the archaeological survey ahead of the future Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link, archaeologists from Museum Lolland-Falster observed that the thin-butted axe appears to have been deliberately jammed into what was the seabed off the southern coast of Lolland 5,500 years ago. Axes are among the typical finds from the Neolithic, but in hafted form, they are extremely rare.


A rare find “Finding a hafted axe as well preserved as this one is quite amazing. Because of the unique preservation conditions, we have found a lot of organic material during the excavations, including a large number of worked and upright wooden stakes. But we have also found more special ar…

Watlington hoard of Viking silver casts light on Alfred the Great era

Coins and other items buried in the late 870s and found by hobby metal detectorist in farmer’s field in Oxfordshire may be worth a small fortune
 http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/dec/10/watlington-hoard-viking-silver-coins-alfred-the-great


Part of the hoard being examined at the British Museum. Photograph: PA


A hoard of Viking silver that casts new light on Alfred the Great and the one-time ally he virtually obliterated from history has been found by a metal detectorist in a field in Oxfordshire.
The hoard, described when it arrived at the British Museum as “a greasy haggis with bits of treasure sticking out at the corners”, was buried in the late 870s, the period in which the hit television series Last Kingdom is set. It may have been the hastily concealed wealth of a Viking conscious of imminent regime change after the defeat of the invaders by Alfred the Great at the battle of Edington in 878.
The discovery in October, on farmland near Watlington, may be worth a small…

Comencemos el año con un brinds! Happy new year!

Se descubrió que la cerveza adelgaza y que sirve para combatir estas 10 enfermedades!Recientemente se ha descubierto que no solamente el vino tomado con moderación es bueno para nuestra salud, sino también que la cerveza es buena cuando se toma moderadamente. Esto así lo confirma una investigación protagonizada por muchos profesionales de la salud en diferentes partes del mundo. Y parte de todos estos beneficios son, el que la cerveza, es buena hasta para perder peso. Y esto no se queda aquí, puesto a que también tiene la capacidad de reducir el colesterol malo en la sangre, previene la diabetes, el Alzheimer y la gripe. Quizás estés pensando, pero bueno; si siempre se ha escuchado a las personas decir que la cerveza infla la barriga y engorda, pero es todo lo contrario, pues mediante estudios realizados en España, beber cerveza con moderación a diario, evita el aumento de peso, además de que previene la diabetes, la hipertensión y problemas del corazón.
Esto así lo confi…

Hallan 39 lingotes de oricalco, un metal legendario

Hallan 39 lingotes de oricalco, un metal legendario descrito por Platón en La Atlántida Un grupo de buzos encuentra 39 lingotes de oricalco en el mar de Gela, al sur de la isla de Sicilia El oricalco u orichalcum, como se le denomina en la Antigüedad, es un metal legendario que aparece mencionado en los muchos escritos antiguos. El término, en sí, deriva del griego y significa “cobre de montaña”. Su leyenda se magnifica porque el filósofo griego Platón, que vivió entre los años 427 y 347 a.C. aproximadamente, lo menciona en sus escritos sobre la Atlántida. Según se extrae de estos longevos textos, el oricalco es el segundo metal más valioso de la época y predomina en muchas partes de la Atlántida. El diario Ansa de Sicilia, recientemente, nos sorprende con la noticia de que ha aparecido treinta y nueve lingotes relucientes de oricalco en el mar de Gela, situado en la costa meridional de la isla italiana de Sicilia, en una zona perteneciente a la provincia de Caltanissetta. El hallazgo …